Details for The Link Between DDR and SSR in Conflict-Affected Countries
|Name:||The Link Between DDR and SSR in Conflict-Affected Countries|
This United States Institute of Peace (USIP) Special Report explores the link between Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) and Security Sector Reform (SSR), in particular how the two can mutually reinforce one another and help to reinforce a peace settlement and contain violence. It draws on examples including East Timor and Afghanistan. Its focus is primarily operational.
The paper argues that DDR and SSR have a joint purpose, to restore or establish the state's monopoly on the use of force. DDR helps ensure the long-term success of SSR as it shifts ex-combatants into the new security forces where they no longer threaten the state's monopoly on force. SSR helps ensure the long-term success of DDR as security-sector governance includes ministry programmes that provide for the welfare of former combatants. Failure of one risks failure of the other.
Combined, the paper argues they can reinforce the peace settlement by fortifying mutual trust among former enemies and encouraging followers to lay down their guns and enter civilian life. This is particularly likely if ex-combatants perceive that they will have a substantive role in crafting and serving in the new government; if not done properly, many will seek employment in militias, organised crime and private security companies, potentially resulting in reconstituted warring parties under new names.
Although the two are difficult to integrate - and commonly thought of as separate - the paper argues the two should be planned, resourced, implemented and evaluated together and as part of a wider process. The natural point of intersection is the reintegration phase, when ex-combatants may seek job training and reintegration in the new security sector.
It highlights that attempts to reform the security and justice sectors are interdependent, although entailing some distinctly separate tasks. It also notes that while security and justice should ideally complement each other there may be a natural tension in some circumstances, e.g. between security programmes and transitional justice.